Sikkerhet, imponerende resultater og langvarig effekt

Lege- og pasientundersøkelser viser at 90% av de som bruker Alpha-Stim® CES- og MET-enheter får betydelig lindring når de bruker apparatene mot smerte, angst, depresjon og søvnløshet. Dette støttes av over 100 gjennomførte uavhengige forskningsstudier og publiserte rapporter, hvorav mange er randomiserte kontrollerte studier for å sikre streng testing og klinisk validering av resultater for medisinsk utstyr.

Liste over studier og publikasjoner per juni 2019:

ANXIETY / ANGST

Randomized Controlled Trials

  • Hill, Nolan. The effects of alpha stimulation on induced anxiety. 2015. Digital Commons @ ACU, Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 6. http://digitalcommons.acu.edu/etd/6.
  • LU Ling, HU Jun. A comparative study of anxiety disorders treatment with Paroxetine in combination with cranial electrotherapy stimulation therapy. Medical Innovation of China. 2014, 11(08):080-082.
  • Barclay TH, Barclay RD. A clinical trial of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety and comorbid depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 164:171-177. Presented at the American Psychological Association National Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 2013.
  • Lee, S-H, Kim, W-Y, Lee C-H, Min, T-J, Lee Y-S, Kim J-H. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on preoperative anxiety, pain and endocrine response. Journal of International Medical Research. 2013; 41(6) 1788–1795.
  • Kolesos ON, Osionwo HO, Akkhigbe. The role of relaxation therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of dental anxiety in Nigeria. ISOR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2013; 10(4): 51-57.
  • Strentzsch, Julie A. An examination of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on alpha-amylase levels, cortisol levels and state-trait anxiety scores in the chronically mentally ill. Doctoral Dissertation. 2008. Saint Mary’s University, San Antonio, Texas.
  • Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and the reduction of stress symptoms in a sheriff’s jail security and patrol officer population: a pilot study. American Jails. 2008; 22(5): 32-38.
  • Kim, Hyun Jung, Kim, Woon Young, Lee, Yoon Sook, Chang, Moon Seok, Kim, Jae Hwan, and Park, Young Cheol. The effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on preoperative anxiety and hemodynamic responses. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2008; 55(6): 657- 661.
  • Chen Yixin, Yu Lin, Zhang Jiuping, Li Lejia, Chen Tunong, Chen Yi. Results of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to children with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 2007; 19(4):203-205.
  • Winick, Reid L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): a safe and effective low cost means of anxiety control in a dental practice. General Dentistry. 1999; 47(1):50-55.
  • Voris, Marshall D. An investigation of the effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders among outpatient psychiatric patients, impulse control parolees and pedophiles. Delos Mind/Body Institute Newsletter. 1995. Dallas and Corpus Cristi, Texas.
  • Gibson, Thomas H. and O’Hair, Donald E. Cranial application of low level transcranial electrotherapy vs. relaxation instruction in anxious patients. American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(1):18-21, 1987. Doctoral dissertation (TG), California School of Professional Psychology. 1983. 152 pages.

Open Clinical Trials

  • Morriss R, Xydopoulos G, Craven M, Price L, Fordham R. Clinical effectiveness and cost minimisation model of Alpha-Stim cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treatment seeking patients with moderate to severe generalised anxiety disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2019, June; 253:426-437.
  • Platoni K, Oakley R, Haltiwanger SG, et al. First responder research shows that electrical brain stimulation helps control anxiety, insomnia, and depression. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. 2019; 2(1): 006.
  • Kirsch TB, Kuhn J, Price LR, Marksberry J, Haltiwanger SG. A novel medical device that relieves anxiety, depression and pain while improving sleep in a population of teachers. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. 2019; 8:334.
  • Morrow DJ, Fischer EP, Walder AM, Jubran NI. Nonopioid Alternatives to Addressing Pain Intensity: A Retrospective Look at Two Noninvasive Pain Treatment Devices. Federal Practitioner. 2019, 36(4):181-187.
  • Yennurajalingam S, Kang D-H, Hwu W-J, Padhye NS, Masino C, Dibaj SS, Liu DD, Williams JL, Lu Z, Bruera E. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the management of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain in patients with advanced cancer: a preliminary study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2018; 55(2):198-206.
  • Mellen, Ronald R., Case, Jan and Ruiz, Deanna J. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) As a treatment for reducing stress and improving prefrontal cortex functioning in victims of domestic violence. International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology Newsletter. 2016, 48(3):12-15.
  • Bystritsky, A., Kerwin, L., Feusner, J. A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008; 69:412-417.
  • Lu XY, Wang AH, Li Y, Zhang JS, Liu BX. Safety and effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treating children with emotional disorders. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. 2005; 9(8):96-7.
  • Overcash, Stephen J. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in patients suffering from acute anxiety disorders. American Journal of Electromedicine. 1999; 16(1):49-51.

Case Series and Reports

  • Hare, Jean P., Misialek, Leah H., Palis, Katy and Wong, Charmin. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation therapy to treat behavioral health symptoms in a combat operational setting. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(11):1410-1412.
  • Kirsch DL, Price LR, Nichols F, Marksberry JA and Platoni KT. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, PTSD, insomnia, and depression: US military Service Members and veterans self reports. The Army Medical Department Journal. 2014;(4) 46-54.

INSOMNIA / SØVNPROBLEMER

Randomized Controlled Trials

  • Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Jante E., Kinser, Patricia A., and Bourguignon, Cheryl. Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia. Pain Management Nursing. 2013;14(4):327-335.
  • Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The treatment of fibromyalgia with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 2001; 7(2):72-78. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999.
  • Lande, R. Gregory and Gragnani, Cynthia. Efficacy of cranial electric stimulation for the treatment of insomnia: A randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 21(1):8-13, 2013.

Open Clinical Trials

  • Platoni K, Oakley R, Haltiwanger SG, et al. First responder research shows that electrical brain stimulation helps control anxiety, insomnia, and depression. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. 2019; 2(1): 006.
  • Kirsch TB, Kuhn J, Price LR, Marksberry J, Haltiwanger SG. A novel medical device that relieves anxiety, depression and pain while improving sleep in a population of teachers. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. 2019; 8:334.
  • Yennurajalingam S, Kang D-H, Hwu W-J, Padhye NS, Masino C, Dibaj SS, Liu DD, Williams JL, Lu Z, Bruera E. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the management of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain in patients with advanced cancer: a preliminary study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2018; 55(2):198-206.
  • Rickabaugh K, Johnson T, Martin S, Jones C and Onifer D. A retrospective review of patient perception of Alpha-Stimulation treatment. Poster presented at The Military Health System Symposium in Kissimmee, Florida. 2016; August 15-18.

Case Series and Reports

  • Hare, Jean P., Misialek, Leah H., Palis, Katy and Wong, Charmin. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation therapy to treat behavioral health symptoms in a combat operational setting. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(11):1410-1412.
  • Clark, Nancy, Mills, Daniel & Marchant, Jeremy. Evaluation of the potential efficacy of the Alpha-Stim SCS in the horse. DeMontfort University Equestrian Centre and Field Station, Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. January, 2000.

DEPRESSION / DEPRESJON

Randomized Controlled Trials

  • Barclay TH, Barclay RD. A clinical trial of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety and comorbid depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 164:171-177. Presented at the American Psychological Association National Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 2013.
  • Amr, Mostafa, El-Wasify, Mahmoud, Elmaadawi, Ahmed, Roberts, Jeannie, and El-Mallakn, Rif. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the treatment of chronically symptomatic bipolar patients. Journal of ECT. 2013; 29(2): 31-32.
  • Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Reducing sheriff’s officers’ symptoms of depression using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): a control experimental study. The Correctional Psychologist. 2009; 41(1):9-15.
  • Chen Yixin, Yu Lin, Zhang Jiuping, Li Lejia, Chen Tunong, Chen Yi. Results of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to children with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 2007; 19(4):203-205.

Open Clinical Trials

  • Platoni K, Oakley R, Haltiwanger SG, et al. First responder research shows that electrical brain stimulation helps control anxiety, insomnia, and depression. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. 2019; 2(1): 006.
  • Kirsch TB, Kuhn J, Price LR, Marksberry J, Haltiwanger SG. A novel medical device that relieves anxiety, depression and pain while improving sleep in a population of teachers. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. 2019; 8:334.
  • Morrow DJ, Fischer EP, Walder AM, Jubran NI. Nonopioid Alternatives to Addressing Pain Intensity: A Retrospective Look at Two Noninvasive Pain Treatment Devices. Federal Practitioner. 2019, 36(4):181-187.
  • Yennurajalingam S, Kang D-H, Hwu W-J, Padhye NS, Masino C, Dibaj SS, Liu DD, Williams JL, Lu Z, Bruera E. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the management of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain in patients with advanced cancer: a preliminary study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2018; 55(2):198-206.
  • Rickabaugh K, Johnson T, Martin S, Jones C and Onifer D. A retrospective review of patient perception of Alpha-Stimulation treatment. Poster presented at The Military Health System Symposium in Kissimmee, Florida. 2016; August 15-18.
  • Bystritsky, A., Kerwin, L., Feusner, J. A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008; 69:412-417.
  • Lu XY, Wang AH, Li Y, Zhang JS, Liu BX. Safety and effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treating children with emotional disorders. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. 2005; 9(8):96-7.

Case Series and Reports

  • Hare, Jean P., Misialek, Leah H., Palis, Katy and Wong, Charmin. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation therapy to treat behavioral health Symptoms in a combat operational setting. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(11):1410-1412.
  • Kirsch DL, Price LR, Nichols F, Marksberry JA and Platoni KT. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, PTSD, insomnia, and depression: US military Service Members and veterans self reports. The Army Medical Department Journal. 2014;(4) 46-54.

PAIN / SMERTE

Randomized Controlled Trials

  • Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Jante E., Kinser, Patricia A., and Bourguignon, Cheryl. Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia. Pain Management Nursing. 2013;14(4):327-335.
  • Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Janet E. and Bourguignon, Cheryl. A randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study of the effects of cranial electrical stimulation on activity in brain pain processing regions in individuals with fibromyalgia. Explore. 2013; 9(1):32-40.
  • Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana, Jensen, Mark P., Richards, J. Scott, Holmes, Sally Ann, Parachuri, Rama, Lashgari-Saegh, Shamsi and Price, Larry R. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2011; 34(3):285-296.
  • Rintala, Diana H., Tan, Gabriel, Willson, Pamela, Bryant, Mon S., and Lai, Eugene C. H. Feasibility of using cranial electrotherapy stimulation for pain in persons with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s Disease. 2010; 1-8.
  • Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana H., Thornby, John, Yang, June, Wade, Walter, and Vasilev, Christine. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation to treat pain associated with spinal cord Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2006; 43(4):461-474. Presented at the South Central VA Health Care Network’s Pain Management Initiative 2nd Annual Pain Management Symposium: Campaign Against Pain. Jackson, Mississippi, April 7, 2006.
  • Cork, Randall C., Wood, Patrick, Ming, Norbert, Shepherd, Clifton, Eddy, James, Price, Larry. The effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on pain associated with fibromyalgia. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; 8(2).
  • Tan, G., Rintala, D., Herrington, R., Yang, J., Wade, W., Vasilev, C. and Shanti, B.F. Treating spinal cord injury pain with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2003; 26(3):461-474. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 2-4, 2003.
  • Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The treatment of fibromyalgia with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 2001; 7(2):72-78. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999.
  • Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K, Bruce J, Slauterbeck J. The effect of microcurrent stimulation on postoperative pain after patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000.
  • Heffernan, Michael. The effect of variable microcurrents on EEG spectrum and pain control. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine. 1997; 4(10):4-11.
  • Zimmerman, Stephen I, & Lerner, Fred N. Biofeedback and electromedicine reduce the cycle of pain spasm pain in low back patients. Medical Electronics. 1989; 117(6):108-120. Doctoral dissertation (SZ), City University Los Angeles, 284 pages, 1987.
  • Roth, Peter M, & Thrash, William J. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for controlling pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement. American Journal of Orthodontics. 1986; 90(2):132-138.

Open Clinical Trials

  • Platoni K, Oakley R, Haltiwanger SG, et al. First responder research shows that electrical brain stimulation helps control anxiety, insomnia, and depression. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. 2019; 2(1): 006.
  • Kirsch TB, Kuhn J, Price LR, Marksberry J, Haltiwanger SG. A novel medical device that relieves anxiety, depression and pain while improving sleep in a population of teachers. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. 2019; 8:334.
  • Morrow DJ, Fischer EP, Walder AM, Jubran NI. Nonopioid Alternatives to Addressing Pain Intensity: A Retrospective Look at Two Noninvasive Pain Treatment Devices. Federal Practitioner. 2019, 36(4):181-187.
  • Yennurajalingam S, Kang D-H, Hwu W-J, Padhye NS, Masino C, Dibaj SS, Liu DD, Williams JL, Lu Z, Bruera E. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the management of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain in patients with advanced cancer: a preliminary study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2018; 55(2):198-206.
  • Tan, Gabriel, Dao, Tam K., Smith, Donna L., Robinson, Andrew and Jensen, Mark P. Incorporating complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies to expand psychological services to veterans suffering from chronic pain. Psychological Services. 2010; 7(3):148–161.
  • Holubec, Jerry T. Cumulative response from cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) for chronic pain. Practical Pain Management. 2009; 9(9):80-83.
  • Tae-Kyu Lee, Kwan-Sung Lee, Shin-Soo Jeun, Young-Kil Hong, Chun-Kun Park, Joon-Ki, Moon-Chan Kim. The control of chronic pain using microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. From the Department of Neurosurgery, Kangnam St. Mary’s Hospital, College Of Medicine, and The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Presented at the Korea Society for Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery, April 14, 2004.
  • Kulkarni, Arun D. and Smith, Ray B. The use of microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in pain control. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine. 2001; 2(2):99-102.

Case Series and Reports

  • Keizer B, Sposato L, and Yancosek K. A progressive treatment for a chronic progressive disease: the war against complex regional pain syndrome. The Pain Practitioner. 2016; 6(1):26-31.
  • Smith, Ray B. Is microcurrent stimulation effective in pain management? An additional Perspective. American Journal of Pain Management. 2001; 11(2):62-66.
  • Alpher, Elliott J. and Kirsch, Daniel L. Traumatic brain injury and full body reflex sympathetic dystrophy patient treated with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. American Journal of Pain Management, 1998; 8(4):124-128.
  • Bauer, William. Electrical treatment of severe head and neck cancer pain. Archives of Otolaryngology. 1983; 109(6):382-383.

DIVERSE

Mechanistic Studies / Mekanistiske studier

  • Lande GR and Gragnani CT. Prospective study of brain wave changes associated with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. 2018; 20(1).
  • Qiao Jainping, Weng Shenhong, Wang Pengwei, Long Jun, and Wang Zhishun. Normalization of intrinsic neural circuits governing Tourette’s Syndrome using cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2015;62(5): 1272-80.
  • Feusner, J. D., Madsen, S., Moody, T. D., Bohon, C., Hembacher, E., Bookheimer, S. Y. and Bystritsky. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on resting state brain activity. Brain and Behavior. 2012; 211-220.
  • Kennerly, Richard. Changes in quantitative EEG and low resolution tomography following cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Ph.D. Dissertation, the University of North Texas. 2006. 529 pp., 81 tables, 233 figures, 171 references.
  • Kennerly, Richard. QEEG analysis of cranial electrotherapy: a pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy. 2004; (8)2:112-113. Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation annual conference, September 18-21, 2003 in Houston, Texas.
  • Schroeder, M.J., and Barr, R.E. Quantitative analysis of electroencephalogram during cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2001; 112:2075-2083. Doctoral dissertation, The Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin, 191 pages, 1999.
  • Heffernan, Michael. Comparative effects of microcurrent stimulation on EEG spectrum and correlation dimension. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science. 1996; 31(3):202-209.

Review Articles / Oversiktsartikler

  • Ryall, Jo-Ellyn. FDA moving toward CES neuromodulation approval for home use: are we ready? Missouri Psychiatry. First Quarter- 2017: 3.
  • O’Hara, Christiane and Putnam, Helen (Netta). Sleep: the missing link. Sleep assessment and interventions for combat veterans with disrupted sleep. Combat Stress; 6(1): 3-18.
  • Scarff, Jonathan R. When to consider cranial electrotherapy stimulation for patients with PTSD. Current Psychiatry. 2017; 16(2): 27-28.
  • Massoumi L. Benefits of Alpha-Stim. The Carlat Report: Psychiatry. 2016; 14(11 &12): 1,4-5.
  • Moehringer J and Knabe MB. Transdermal electrical neurostimulation therapies in psychiatry: A review of the evidence. Psychiatric Annals. 2016; 46(10):589-593.
  • Libretto S, Hilton L, Gordon S, and Zhang W. Effects of integrative PTSD treatment in a military health setting. Energy Psychology. 2015; 7(2):33-44.
  • Anderson, Joel G., Kebaish, Samy A., Lewis, Janet E., and Taylor, Ann G. Effects of cranial electrical stimulation on activity in regions of the basal ganglia in individuals with fibromyalgia. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2014; 20(3): 206-207.
  • Horowitz, Sala. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2013; 19(4):188-193.
  • Kirsch, Daniel L. and Nichols, Francine. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression and insomnia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2013; 36(1):169-176.
  • Farina Woodbury, Michael A. Efecto de la microcorriente sobre síntomas, de ansiedad, depresión, insomnio y dolor. Galenus. 2008; 1(5):15-18.
  • Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. CES in the treatment of insomnia: a review and meta-analysis. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(7):28-39.
  • Tan Gabriel and Jensen Mark P. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment. In Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Management: A Guidebook for Program Development and Excellence of Treatment. Schatman and Campbell (editors). Taylor & Francis. 2007. Pp. 75-99.
  • Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of depression – part 1. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(4):33-41.
  • Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of depression – part 2. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(5):32-40.
  • Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. A review and meta-analysis of cranial electrotherapy Stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders – part 1. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(2):40-47.
  • Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders: statistical considerations – part 2. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(3):22-39.
  • Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the treatment of anxiety, depression, insomnia and other conditions. Insert: Giordano, James. Illustrating how CES works. Natural Medicine. 2006; 23:118-120.
  • Gilula, Marshall F. and Barach, Paul R. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation: a safe neuromedical treatment for anxiety, depression or insomnia. Southern Medical Journal. 2004; 97(12):1269-1270.
  • Kirsch, Daniel L. and Smith, Ray B. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of chronic pain: a review. NeuroRehabilitation. 2000; 14(2):85-94.

Juni 2019